## What is a Mealy machine? A Mealy machine is a [[Finite-state automata]] where the output values are determined by its current state and current inputs. It is the closest definition to a deterministic [[Finite-state transducer]]. ![Mealy Machine](_assets/Mealy_Machine.jpg) ## Mathematical Model As per the general classification noted on [UC Davis outline on transducers](https://www.cs.ucdavis.edu/~rogaway/classes/120/spring13/eric-transducers) (formatted with similar variables to [[Finite-state automata]]s), a deterministic Mealy machine has 6 main variables associated with its definition (a sextuple): ($\Sigma$, $S$, $\Gamma$, $\delta$, $\omega$, $s_0$). - $\Sigma$ is the _input alphabet_ (a finite non-empty set of symbols) -> our events; - $S$ is a finite non-empty set of states; - $\Gamma$ is the *output alphabet*; - $\delta$ is the state-transition function: $\delta: S \times \Sigma \rightarrow S$ - $\omega$ is the output-transition function: $\omega: S \times \Sigma \rightarrow \Gamma$ - $s_0$ is an _initial state_, an element of $S$; and - $\delta \subseteq S \times (\Sigma \cup \{\epsilon\}) \times (\Gamma \cup \{\epsilon\}) \times S$ (where ε is the [empty string](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empty_string 'Empty string')) is the *transition relation*. Some formulations also allow transition and output functions to be combined as a single function: $ \delta: S \times \Sigma \rightarrow S \times \Gamma $ Given any initial state in $s_0$, to transition our state to the next state with our output alphabet, our transition would be: $ \delta: s_0 \times \Sigma \rightarrow S $ $ \omega: s_0 \times \Sigma \rightarrow \Gamma $ ## Examples of basic Mealy machines Our example from [[Finite-state transducer]]s fits perfectly here as our transition and output function are coalesced as a single function. ```typescript // expiry represents our arbitrary output (in seconds) type expiry = float; // expiry here is used in a constructor as an arbitrary output type trafficLightStatus = | Red(expiry) | Amber(expiry) | Green(expiry) | FlashingRed(expiry) // elapsed here is used in a constructor as an arbitrary input type input = | ExpireTime | Error | Restart let transition = (state, input) => switch (state, input) { | (Red(expiry), ExpireTime) => Green(60.0) | (Red(expiry), Error) => FlashingRed(30.0) | (Green(expiry), ExpireTime) => Amber(60.0) | (Green(expiry), Error) => FlashingRed(30.0) | (Amber(expiry), ExpireTime) => Red(60.0) | (Amber(expiry), Error) => FlashingRed(30.0) | (FlashingRed(expiry), Restart) => Red(60.0) | _ => state }; ``` ## Differences between ### With formal [[Finite-state transducer]]s Mealy machines are a type of generator and are not used in processing language. As such, they do not have a concept of a final state. ### With [[Moore Machine]]s oth Mealy and Moore machines are generator-type state machines and can be used to parse [regular language](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regular_language). The outputs on a Mealy machine depend on **both the state and inputs**, whereas a Moore machine have their outputs **synchronously change with the state.** > Every Moore machine can be converted to a Mealy machine and every Mealy machine can be converted to a Moore machine. Moore machine and Mealy machine are equivalent. ## Reference - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mealy_machine - https://www.cs.ucdavis.edu/~rogaway/classes/120/spring13/eric-transducers - https://unstop.com/blog/difference-between-mealy-and-moore-machine --- <!-- cta --> ### Contributing At Dwarves, we encourage our people to read, write, share what we learn with others, and [[CONTRIBUTING|contributing to the Brainery]] is an important part of our learning culture. For visitors, you are welcome to read them, contribute to them, and suggest additions. We maintain a monthly pool of $1500 to reward contributors who support our journey of lifelong growth in knowledge and network. ### Love what we are doing? - Check out our [products](https://superbits.co) - Hire us to [build your software](https://d.foundation) - Join us, [we are also hiring](https://github.com/dwarvesf/WeAreHiring) - Visit our [Discord Learning Site](https://discord.gg/dzNBpNTVEZ) - Visit our [GitHub](https://github.com/dwarvesf)